Download Acids and Bases (Essential Chemistry) by Kristi Lew PDF

By Kristi Lew

Acids and bases are crucial elements of the wildlife that play key roles in medication and undefined. This ebook takes a detailed examine those attention-grabbing, but contrasting, elements, giving concrete, genuine global examples with a number of vibrant illustrations.

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This gives each hydrogen atom two electrons in its outermost energy level. With its first (and only) energy level full, the hydrogen atoms are stable, even though they do not have eight electrons (recall that the first energy level can only hold a maxi-­ mum of two electrons). In return, the oxygen atom gets to share two electrons. Along with oxygen’s own six valence electrons, this sharing gives the oxygen atom eight electrons on its outermost energy level and also makes it stable. This explains why every water molecule contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.

Instead, for every molecule of sulfuric acid that reacts, there must be two molecules of potassium ­hydroxide: H2SO4 + 2 KOH ➝ K2SO4 + ­ H2O A number placed in front of a compound in a chemical equation shows the number of molecules of that substance needed for a balanced chemical equation. Now, if the number of atoms of each element on the reactant side is the same as the number of those same elements on the product side of the equation, the equation is ­balanced: + 2 KOH ➝ K2SO4 + H2O H2SO4 4 hydrogen atoms 2 hydrogen ­atoms 1 sulfur atom 1 sulfur ­atom 6 oxygen atoms 5 oxygen ­atoms 2 potassium atoms 2 potassium ­atoms The hydrogen and oxygen atoms, however, are still out of balance.

To ­produce ­hydrogen ­gas, ­for ­example, ­the ­top ­bowl ­ is ­removed ­and ­a ­ ­solid— ­in ­this ­case, ­zinc ­ ­metal— ­is ­placed ­into ­the ­ center ­ bowl. ­ The ­ top ­ bowl ­ is ­ then ­ replaced. ­ Hydrochloric ­ acid ­ is ­ poured ­into ­the ­top ­bowl. 1 Made with three connected glass bowls, Kipp’s apparatus relies on ­acid-­base chem-­ istry in order to produce ­gasses—­such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, or hydrogen ­ sulfide—­for chemists to use in other chemical ­reactions. the bottom bowl.

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